For example, the structure of a crystalline protein or polynucleotide, such as a sample prepared for x-ray crystallography, may be defined in terms of a conventional unit cell composed of one or more polymer molecules with cell dimensions of hundreds of angstroms or more.The protein may be modified further following translation in order to provide appropriate structure and functioning.

In biological contexts, essentially all biological macromolecules.e., proteins (polyamides nucleic acids (polynucleotides and polysaccharidesare purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric componentse.Nitrogen is generally used for this purpose, resulting in a vent gas primarily composed of monomers and nitrogen.

Inclusion of plasticizers edit Inclusion of plasticizers tends to lower Tg and increase polymer flexibility.Degradation can also be useful in biomedical settings.