Ieee Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms isbn.Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system ; examples are computers or control systems.Noise may be electromagnetically or thermally generated, which can be decreased by lowering the operating temperature of the circuit.

These days analog circuitry may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance.See also edit References edit "electronics Devices, Facts, History".

Digital circuits are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebra, and are the basis of all digital computers.All the electronics, everything, are original.12 Electronic systems design is therefore the process of defining and developing complex electronic devices to satisfy specified requirements of the user.